Hungary’s Constitutional Framework

Hungary is located in the heart of the Carpathian Basin. The country’s area is 93,036 km2, and its population is 9,998,000. Hungary’s public administrative regional units are comprised of the capital city and nineteen counties. Budapest is made up of twenty-three districts. There are 3,152 cities and municipalities in Hungary.

What is the difference between the form of state and the form of government?

Form of state refers to the source of power. Hungary is a republic, which means that power derives from the people. The form of Hungary’s government is parliamentary, which means that the people exercise power through elected Members of Parliament (this is also known as the principle of popular sovereignty). Hungary functions according to democratic principles, and this is reflected in the relationship between the branches of government: the three main branches of government (the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary) operate independently of each other. The separation of power does not allow any one of these branches to appropriate power and arbitrarily dictate the life of the country and its citizens, as in addition to operating independently, they mutually monitor each others’ activities. This is known as a system of "checks and balances".

What is the structure of the Hungarian state?

The most important institutions of the Hungarian State are:

  • Legislative governance: Parliament
  • Executive governance: the Government
  • Judiciary governance: the Courts

The Parliament Building

The following people, bodies and institutions play an important role in the functioning of the State:

  • the President of the Republic
  • the Constitutional Court
  • the Ombudsmen, otherwise known as Parliamentary Commissioners
  • the State Audit Office
  • the Hungarian National Bank
  • the Hungarian Armed Forces
  • the Hungarian Prosecution Service
  • local governments

What is the purpose of the Fundamental Law?

The Fundamental Law is the foundation of the Hungarian legal system. The Fundamental Law and legislative regulations are binding to all persons. The provisions of the Constitution must be interpreted in accordance with their purposes, the National Avowal and the achievements of our historical Constitution.